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Soft magnetic alloys are ferromagnetic materials that are easily magnetized and de-magnetized. To provide optimal magnetic performance, these soft, iron-based alloys possess very low levels of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen. They rely on various additions of phosphorus, nickel, and silicon to optimize magnetic induction, permeability, and coercive force. The magnetic properties of all of these alloys benefit from high temperature sintering (HT) above 2200 F (1200 C) in hydrogen, as compared to the standard PM sintering process (ST) in metal mesh belt furnaces at nominally 2050 F (1120 C). Density and grain size increases, while residual levels of carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen are reduced. Typical applications include tone wheels, relays, cores, sensor probes, armatures, solenoid components, and pole pieces.
The following tables contain a list of the materials available. For more complete coverage of properties, reference MPIF Standard 35, ASTM B783, ISO 5755, DIN 30910-4, and JIS Z2550, and download the technical information bulletins of interest. Standard powder metal materials are defined in North America by MPIF Standard 35 and ASTM B783, essentially equivalent standards. German PM steels are listed in DIN 30910-4, or more recently, ISO 5755. Japan steels are listed in JIS Z2550, with grade names changing with the revision from 1989 to 2000.
MPIF/ASTM F-0000, FF-0000
DIN Sint-C 00, Sint-D 00, Sint-E 00
JIS SMF 1015, SMF 1020, P1024, P1025, P1026
|Offers the lowest cost solution for high magnetic output where the highest possible magnetic permeability and lowest coercive force is not required.
MPIF/ASTM FY-4500, FY-8000
DIN Sint-C35, Sint-D 35
JIS P1064, P1065, P1066, P1094, P1086
|Iron with 0.45% phosphorus provides slightly higher magnetic output, increased permeability, and lower coercive force compared to pure iron.
|Iron with 3% silicon provides magnetic output similar to phosphorous-iron alloys with higher electrical resistivity.
|Iron with 50% nickel provides exceptional permeability and extremely low coercive force, at the expense of slightly reduced magnetic output.