Low Alloy Molybdenum-Nickel Steels -
Pre-alloyed, Hybrid-alloy, Diffusion-alloyed, and Sinter-hardening

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The addition of molybdenum, nickel, and copper to iron improves the hardenability of steel. These nickel steel alloys are easily sintered in a number of different atmospheres due to the easy reduction of the oxides of both elements, resulting in their preeminent position in PM alloys for strengthening steel.

The chemical elements may be fully prealloyed in the powder, blended from elemental components, or a hybrid of partially prealloyed powder mixed with elemental additions. Elemental additions may be as-blended or diffusion-bonded together for ease of processing. The materials may be used as-sintered with slower cooling, or heat treated for higher strength and hardness. In some cases, rapid cooling during sintering can produce sinter-hardened structures to provide the strength and hardness required without resorting to a secondary heat treat process.

The following tables contain a list of the materials available. For more complete coverage of properties, reference MPIF Standard 35, ASTM B783, ISO 5755, DIN 30910-4, and JIS Z2550, and download the technical information bulletins of interest. Standard powder metal materials are defined in North America by MPIF Standard 35 and ASTM B783, essentially equivalent standards. German PM steels are listed in DIN 30910-4, or more recently, ISO 5755. Japan steels are listed in JIS Z2550, with grade names changing with the revision from 1989 to 2000.

TYPE GRADES DESCRIPTION
Pre-alloyed
Steel
MPIF/ASTM FL-4005, FL-4205, FL-4400, FL-4405, FL-4605, FL-4805,
FL-48105, FL-4905
ISO FL-05M1, FL-05M1N, FL-05N2M
JIS P3114Z, JIS P3115Z, P3124Z, P3125Z
Low alloy steel with prealloyed manganese, molybdenum and nickel content for better hardenability.
Hybrid-alloy
Steel
MPIF/ASTM FLN2C-4005, FLN4C-4005, FLN-4205, FLN2-3905,
FLN2-4400, FLN2-4405, FLN4-4400, FLN4-4405, FLN6-4405, FLNC-4405,
ISO FLA-05M1N-N1, FLA-05M1-N2, FLA-05M1-N4, FLD-08M2-N2,
FLA-05M1-N2C,FLA-05M1-N4C
DIN Sint-C 30, Sint-D30, Sint-E 30, Sint-C 31, Sint-D 31, Sint-E 31,
Sint-C 32, Sint-D 32, Sint-C 39, Sint-D39
JIS P3074, P3075, P3076, P3084, P3085, P3086, P3094, P3095, P3104, P3105, P3106
Low alloy steel with prealloyed molybdenum and admixed nickel and copper for better compressibility.
Diffusion-alloyed
Steel
MPIF/ASTM FD-0205, FD-0208, FD-0405, FD-0408, FLDN2-4908,
FLDN4C2-4905
ISO FD-05N2C, FD08N2C, FD-05N4C, FD-08N4C, FLD-05M2-N4C
Diffusion-bonding elemental nickel and copper powder to the prealloyed iron-molybdenum powder helps reduce elemental segregation during processing.
Sinter-hardened Steel
MPIF/ASTM FLN2-4408, FLN4-4408, FLN6-4408, FLNC-4408, FLC-4608,
FLC-4805, FLC2-4808, FLC-4908
Hardened structures produced by rapid cooling during sintering to avoid secondary heat treating.

Molybdenum-Nickel Steel – Pre-alloyed – As-Sintered

  Chemistry Typical Properties
GRADE C Mn Mo Ni Cu Density g/cm3 Tensile Strength ksi (MPa) Yield Strength ksi (MPa) Elongation % Unnotched Impact Energy ft-lb (J) Apparent Hardness HRB
FL-4405 0.4-0.7 0.05-0.30 0.75-0.95 - - 6.70
7.10
52 (360)
66 (460)
42 (290)
52 (360)
1 6 (8)
16 (22)
60
73
FL-4205 0.4-0.7 0.2-0.4 0.50-0.85 0.35-0.55 - 6.80
7.10
52 (360)
66 (460)
42 (290)
52 (360)
1 6 (8)
12 (16)
60
70
FL-4605 0.4-0.7 0.05-0.30 0.45-0.60 1.7-2.0 - 6.75
7.15
52 (360)
66 (460)
42 (290)
52 (360)
1 6 (8)
16 (22)
60
71

Density ranges for the materials listed are typically for single-pressed parts. Higher densities can be achieved with double-pressing.

Molybdenum-Nickel Steel – Pre-alloyed – Heat-treated

Chemistry Typical Properties
GRADE C Mn Mo Ni Cu Density g/cm3 Tensile Strength ksi (MPa) Yield Strength ksi (MPa) Elongation % Unnotched Impact Energy ft-lb (J) Apparent Hardness HRC
FL-4405-HT 0.4-0.7 0.05-0.30 0.75-0.95 - - 6.70
7.10
110 (760)
160 (1100)
~UTS <1 5.5 (7)
9 (12)
24
34
FL-4205-HT 0.4-0.7 0.2-0.4 0.50-0.85 0.35-0.55 - 6.80
7.00
110 (760)
130 (900)
~UTS <1 7 (9)
8 (11)
32
36
FL-4605-HT 0.4-0.7 0.05-0.3 0.45-0.60 1.7-2.0 - 6.75
6.95
110 (760)
130 (900)
~UTS <1 6 (8)
8 (11)
29
34

Density ranges for the materials listed are typically for single-pressed parts. Higher densities can be achieved with double-pressing. “HT” attached to a grade name indicates the material has been hardened, either by conventional heat treating or by rapid cooling in the sintering furnace, known as “sinter-hardening”.

Molybdenum-Nickel Steel – Hybrid-alloy - As-Sintered

Chemistry Typical Properties
GRADE C Mn Mo Ni Cu Density g/cm3 Tensile Strength ksi (MPa) Yield Strength ksi (MPa) Elongation % Unnotched Impact Energy ft-lb (J) Apparent Hardness HRB
FLN2-3905 0.4-0.7 0.05-0.30 0.25-0.40 1-3 - 6.70
7.10
45 (310)
72 (500)
38 (260)
51 (350)
<1
2
5 (7)
13 (18)
67
75
FLN-4205 0.4-0.7 0.2-0.4 0.49-0.85 1.3-2.5 - 6.60
7.05
58 (400)
73 (500)
47 (320)
58 (400)
1 6 (8)
13 (18)
64
77
FLN2-4405

FLN4-4405
0.4-0.7

0.4-0.7
0.05-0.30

0.05-0.30
0.65-0.95

0.65-0.95
1-3

3-5
-

-
6.60
7.05
6.60
7.05
59 (410)
80 (550)
68 (470)
103 (710)
53 (360)
64 (440)
64 (440)
95 (650)
<1
1

<1
5 (7)
12 (16)
5 (7)
12 (16)
75
85
78
90
FLN2C-4005

FLN4C-4005
0.4-0.7 0.05-0.3 0.4-0.6 1.5-2.0

3.6-4.4
1.3-1.7 6.70
7.10
6.70
7.10
70 (480)
105 (720)
85 (590)
115 (790)
65 (450)
75 (520)
78 (540)
85 (590)
<1 7 (9)
16 (22)
10 (14)
24 (33)
25
38
24
42

Density ranges for the materials listed are typically for single-pressed parts. Higher densities can be achieved with double-pressing.

Molybdenum-Nickel Steel – Hybrid-alloy – Heat-treated

Chemistry Typical Properties
GRADE C Mn Mo Ni Cu Density g/cm3 Tensile Strength ksi (MPa) Yield Strength ksi (MPa) Elongation % Unnotched Impact Energy ft-lb (J) Apparent Hardness HRC
FLN2-3905-HT 0.4-0.7 0.05-0.3 0.25-0.40 1-3 - 6.70
7.10
105 (720)
165 (1140)

105(720)
155 (1070)
<1 5 (7)
9 (12)
26
35
FLN-4205-HT 0.4-0.7 0.2-0.4 0.49-0.85 1.3-2.5 - 6.60
7.05
90 (620)
150 (730)
~UTS <1 5 (7)
9 (12)
24
36
FLN2-4405-HT

FLN4-4405-HT
0.4-0.7 0.05-0.3 0.65-0.95 1-3

3-5
- 6.60
7.05
6.60
7.05
100 (690)
170 (1170)
80 (550)
165 (1140)
~UTS
145 (1000)
~UTS
<1 4 (5)
10 (14)
6 (8)
12 (16)
28
38
20
32
FLN2C-4005-HT

FLN4C-4005-HT
0.4-0.7 0.05-0.3 0.4-0.6 1.5-2.0

3.6-4.4
1.3-1.7 6.70
7.10
6.70
7.10
115 (790)
185 (1280)
126 (870)
184 (1270)
~UTS 101 (700)
145 (1000)
<1 5 (7)
13 (18)
8 (11)
16 (22)
25
34 22
30

Density ranges for the materials listed are typically for single-pressed parts. Higher densities can be achieved with double-pressing. “HT” attached to a grade name indicates the material has been hardened, either by conventional heat treating or by rapid cooling in the sintering furnace, known as “sinter-hardening”.

Molybdenum-Nickel Steel – Diffusion-alloyed - As-Sintered

Chemistry Typical Properties
GRADE C Mn Mo Ni Cu Density g/cm 3 Tensile Strength ksi (MPa) Yield Strength ksi (MPa) Elongation % Unnotched Impact Energy ft-lb (J) Apparent Hardness HRB
FD-0105 0.4-0.7 0.05-0.3 0.4-0.6 0.4-0.6 - 6.70
7.10
54 (370)
77 (530)
42 (290)
54 (370)
1
3
5 (7)
13 (18)
60
75
FD-0205

FD-0208
0.3-0.6

0.6-0.9
0.05-0.3 0.4-0.6 1.55-1.95 1.3-1.7 6.75
7.15
6.75
7.10
68 (470)
88 (610)
69 (480)
72 (630)
52 (360)
61 (420)
58 (400)
68 (470)
1
2
<1
1
8 (11)
18 (24)
7 (9)
12 (16)
72
80
80
87
FD-0405

FD-0408
0.3-0.6

0.6-0.9
0.05-0.3 0.4-0.6 3.6-4.4 1.3-1.7 6.75
7.05
6.70
7.20
86 (590)
103 (710)
71 (490)
110 (620)
62 (430)
66 (460)
57 (390)
67 (430)
1

<1
1
11 (15)
20 (27)
9 (12)
18 (18)
80
85
85
93
FLDN2-4908 0.6-0.9 0.05-0.3 1.3-1.7 1.85-2.25 - 6.75
7.15
82 (570)
117 (810)
78 (540)
100 (690)
<1
1
7 (9)
13 (18)
91
98
FLDN4C2-4905 0.3-0.6 0.05-0.3 1.3-1.7 3.6-4.4 1.6-2.4 6.75 7.15 85 (590)
125 (860)
58 (400)
77 (530)
1 10 (14)
18 (24)
85
95

Density ranges for the materials listed are typically for single-pressed parts. Higher densities can be achieved with double-pressing.

Molybdenum-Nickel Steel – Diffusion-alloyed – Heat-treated

Chemistry Typical Properties
GRADE C Mn Mo Ni Cu Density g/cm 3 Tensile Strength ksi (MPa) Yield Strength ksi (MPa) Elongation % Unnotched Impact Energy ft-lb (J) Apparent Hardness HRC
FD-0105-HT 0.4-0.7 0.05-0.3 0.4-0.6 0.4-0.6 - 6.70
7.10
120 (830)
175 (1200)
115 (790)
165 (1140)
<1 5 (7)
9 (12)
25
33
FD-0205-HT

FD-0405-HT
0.3-0.6 0.05-0.3 0.4-0.6 1.55-1.95

3.6-4.4
1.3-1.7 6.75
7.10
6.75
7.05
105 (720)
150 (1030)
110 (760)
140 (970)
~UTS <1 5 (7)
9 (12)
5 (7)
7 (9)
28
38
30
35

Density ranges for the materials listed are typically for single-pressed parts. Higher densities can be achieved with double-pressing. “HT” attached to a grade name indicates the material has been hardened, either by conventional heat treating or by rapid cooling in the sintering furnace, known as “sinter-hardening”

Molybdenum-Nickel Steel – Sinter-Hardened

Like the hybrid PM steels, the sinter-hardening grades use prealloyed powders with admixed additions of nickel, copper, and graphite to produce compositions that will harden during the cooling cycle in the sintering furnace, avoiding the need for a secondary heat treating process. In addition to eliminating a process step, sinter-hardening offers improved dimensional control and part cleanliness. The resulting microstructure is predominantly martensitic, so like heat treated parts, sinter-hardened parts should be tempered (180-205 C is typical). Also like heat treated parts, sinter-hardened parts are not readily machined.

Chemistry Typical Properties
GRADE C Mn Mo Ni Cu Density g/cm 3 Tensile Strength ksi (MPa) Yield Strength ksi (MPa) Elongation % Unnotched Impact Energy ft-lb (J) Apparent Hardness >HRC
FLNC-4408-HT 0.6-0.9 0.05-0.3 0.65-0.95 1-3 1-3 6.6
7.0
70 (480)
115 (790)
~UTS <1 4 (5)
12 (16)
98 HRB
25
FLC-4608-HT 0.6-0.9 0.05-0.3 0.43-0.60 1.6-2.0 1-3 6.6
7.0
70 (480)
105 (720)
~UTS <1 7 (9)
11 (15)
28
36
FLC-4805-HT

FLC2-4808-HT
0.5-0.7

0.6-0.9
0.05-0.3 1.1-1.4 1.2-1.6 0.7-1.4

1-3
6.6
7.0
6.6
7.0
75 (520)
150 (1030) 75 (520)
120 (830)
~UTS <1 5 (7)
10 (14) 7 (9)
14 (18)
24
34
25
35

Density ranges for the materials listed are typically for single-pressed parts. Higher densities can be achieved with double-pressing. “HT” attached to a grade name indicates the material has been hardened, either by conventional heat treating or by rapid cooling in the sintering furnace, known as “sinter-hardening”.

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